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50 .Does Spring-WS work under Java 1.6?
Java 1.6 ships with SAAJ 1.3, JAXB 2.0, and JAXP 1.4 (a custom version of Xerces and Xalan). Overriding these libraries by putting different version on the classpath will result in various classloading issues, or exceptions in org.apache.xml.serializer.ToXMLSAXHandler. The only option for using more recent versions is to put the newer version in the endorsed directory (see above).

51 . Why do the Spring-WS unit tests fail under Mac OS X?
For some reason, Apple decided to include a Java 1.4 compatibility jar with their JDK 1.5. This jar includes the XML parsers which were included in Java 1.4. No other JDK distribution does this, so it is unclear what the purpose of this compatibility jar is.
The jar can be found at /System/Library/Frameworks/JavaVM.framework/Versions/1.5.0/Classes/.compatibility/14compatibility.jar. You can safely remove or rename it, and the tests will run again.

52 . What is SAAJ?
SAAJ is the SOAP with Attachments API for Java. Like most Java EE libraries, it consists of a set of interfaces (saaj-api.jar), and implementations (saaj-impl.jar). When running in a Application Server, the implementation is typically provided by the application server. Previously, SAAJ has been part of JAXM, but it has been released as a seperate API as part of the , and also as part of J2EE 1.4. SAAJ is generally known as the packagejavax.xml.soap.
Spring-WS uses this standard SAAJ library to create representations of SOAP messages. Alternatively, it can use

53 . What version of SAAJ does my application server support?

Application Server

SAAJ Version

BEA WebLogic 8


BEA WebLogic 9


BEA WebLogic 10


IBM WebSphere 6


SUN Glassfish 1


JBoss 4.2


54 .I get a NoSuchMethodError when using SAAJ. What can I do about it?
If you get the following stack trace:
org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanCreationException: Error creating bean with name '' defined in ServletContext resource [/WEB-INF/springws-servlet.xml]:
Invocation of init method failed;
nested exception is java.lang.NoSuchMethodError:
Caused by:
Like most J2EE libraries, SAAJ consists of two parts: the API that consists of interfaces (saaj-api.jar) and the implementation (saaj-impl.jar). The stack trace is due to the fact that you are using a new version of the API (SAAJ 1.3), while your application server provides an earlier version of the implementation (SAAJ 1.2 or even 1.1). Spring-WS supports all three versions of SAAJ (1.1 through 1.3), but things break when it sees the 1.3 API, while there is no 1.3 implementation.
The solution therefore is quite simple: to remove the newer 1.3 version of the API, from the class path, and replace it with the version supported by your application server.

55 . I get an UnsupportedOperationException "This class does not support SAAJ 1.1" when I use SAAJ under WebLogic 9. What can I do about it?
WebLogic 9 has a known bug in the SAAJ 1.2 implementation: it implement all the 1.2 interfaces, but throws UnsupportedOperationExceptions when you call them. Confusingly, the exception message is This class does not support SAAJ 1.1, even though it supports SAAJ 1.1 just fine; it just doesn't support SAAJ 1.2. See alsot
Spring-WS has a workaround for this, we basically use SAAJ 1.1 only when dealing with WebLogic 9. Unfortunately, other frameworks which depend on SAAJ, such as XWSS, do not have this workaround. These frameworks happily call SAAJ 1.2 methods, which throw this exception.
The solution is to not use BEA's version of SAAJ, but to use another implementation, like the one from Axis 1, or SUN. In you application context, use the following:
<bean id="messageFactory" class="">
    <property name="messageFactory">
        <bean class="com.sun.xml.messaging.saaj.soap.MessageFactoryImpl"/>


56 . I get an UnsupportedOperationException "This class does not support SAAJ 1.1" when I use SAAJ under WebLogic 10. What can I do about it?
Weblogic 10 ships with two SAAJ implementations. By default the buggy 9.x implementation is used (which lives in the package weblogic.webservice.core.soap), but there is a new implementation, which supports SAAJ 1.3 (which lives in the package weblogic.xml.saaj). By looking at the DEBUG logging when Spring Web Services starts up, you can see which SAAJ implementation is used.
To use this new version, you have to create a message factory bean like so:
<bean id="messageFactory" class="">
    <property name="messageFactory">
        <bean class="weblogic.xml.saaj.MessageFactoryImpl"/>


57 . I get an IndexOutOfBoundsException when I use SAAJ under JBoss. What can I do about it?
The SAAJ implementation provided by JBoss has some issues. The solution is therefore not to use the JBoss implementation, but to use another implementation. For instance, you can use SUN's reference implementation like so:
<bean id="messageFactory" class="">
    <property name="messageFactory">
        <bean class="com.sun.xml.messaging.saaj.soap.ver1_1.SOAPMessageFactory1_1Impl"/>

58 . Does Spring-WS run on IBM WebSphere?
WebSphere bundles some libraries which are out-of-date, and need to be upgraded with more recent versions. Specifically, this includes XML-apis, Xerces, Xalan, and WSDL4J.
There are a couple of ways to upgrade these libraries, all using parent-last or application-first classloading.

  • Package the libraries as part of the WAR (in WEB-INF/lib), and run the web application with the parent-last (application-first) classloading.
  • Package the libraries as part of the EAR, add class-path entries to the manifest of the web application, and run the entire application with the parent-last classloading.
  • Create a new classloader in the WebSphere console, and associate the libraries with. Set this classloader to parent-last.

The last approach has the advantage of restricting the parent-last classloading to the conflicting libraries only, and not to the entire application.

 59. Why does Spring-WS only support contract-first?
 Note that Spring-WS only requires you to write the XSD; the WSDL can be generated from that.

60 . How do I retrieve the WSDL from a Service?
The &WSDL query parameter does not work.
The &WSDL query parameter is a way to get a WSDL of a class. In SWS, a service is generally not implemented as a single class, but as a collection of endpoints.
There are two ways to expose a WSDL:

  • Simply add the WSDL to the root of the WAR, and the file is served normally. This has the disadvantage that the "location" attribute in the WSDL is static, i.e. it does not necessarily reflect the host name of the server. You can transform locations by using a WsdlDefinitionHandlerAdapter.
  • Use theMessageDispatcherServlet, which is done is the samples. Every WsdlDefinition listed in the *-servlet.xml will be exposed under the bean name. So if you define a WsdlDefinition namedecho, it will be exposed as echo.wsdl (i.e.http://localhost:8080/echo/echo.wsdl).

61 What is web module?

Spring comes with a full-featured MVC framework for building web applications. Although Spring can easily be integrated with other MVC frameworks, such as Struts, Spring’s MVC framework uses IoC to provide for a clean separation of controller logic from business objects. It also allows you to declaratively bind request parameters to your business objects. It also can take advantage of any of Spring’s other services, such as I18N messaging and validation.

62 What is a BeanFactory?

A BeanFactory is an implementation of the factory pattern that applies Inversion of Control to separate the application’s configuration and dependencies from the actual application code.

63 What is AOP Alliance?

AOP Alliance is an open-source project whose goal is to promote adoption of AOP and interoperability among different AOP implementations by defining a common set of interfaces and components.

64 What is Spring configuration file?

Spring configuration file is an XML file. This file contains the classes information and describes how these classes are configured and introduced to each other.

65 .What does a simple spring application contain?

These applications are like any Java application. They are made up of several classes, each performing a specific purpose within the application. But these classes are configured and introduced to each other through an XML file. This XML file describes how to configure the classes, known as theSpring configuration file.

66 What is XMLBeanFactory?
BeanFactory has many implementations in Spring. But one of the most useful one is org.springframework.beans.factory.xml.XmlBeanFactory, which loads its beans based on the definitions contained in an XML file. To create an XmlBeanFactory, pass a to the constructor. The InputStream will provide the XML to the factory. For example, the following code snippet uses a to provide a bean definition XML file to XmlBeanFactory.

        BeanFactory factory = new XmlBeanFactory(new FileInputStream("beans.xml"));
To retrieve the bean from a BeanFactory, call the getBean() method by passing the name of the bean you want to retrieve.

        MyBean myBean = (MyBean) factory.getBean("myBean")

67 . What are important ApplicationContext implementations in spring framework?

  • ClassPathXmlApplicationContext – This context loads a context definition from an XML file located in the class path, treating context definition files as class path resources.
  • FileSystemXmlApplicationContext – This context loads a context definition from an XML file in the filesystem.
  • XmlWebApplicationContext – This context loads the context definitions from an XML file contained within a web application.

68 . Explain Bean lifecycle in Spring framework?

  • The spring container finds the bean’s definition from the XML file and instantiates the bean.
  • Using the dependency injection, spring populates all of the properties as specified in the bean definition.
  • If the bean implements the BeanNameAware interface, the factory calls setBeanName() passing the bean’s ID.
  • If the bean implements the BeanFactoryAware interface, the factory calls setBeanFactory(), passing an instance of itself.
  • If there are any BeanPostProcessors associated with the bean, their post- ProcessBeforeInitialization() methods will be called.
  • If an init-method is specified for the bean, it will be called.
  • Finally, if there are any BeanPostProcessors associated with the bean, their postProcessAfterInitialization() methods will be called.

69 What is bean wiring?
Combining together beans within the Spring container is known as bean wiring or wiring. When wiring beans, you should tell the container what beans are needed and how the container should use dependency injection to tie them together.